KARAKTERISTIK MAKARONI DARI TEPUNG SINGKONG, UBI JALAR PUTIH, KIMPUL DENGAN PENAMBAHAN EKSTRAK KULIT BUAH DAN SAYUR

Maria Cornelia, Dedin Finatsiyatull Rosida, Riski Ayu Anggreini

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Macaroni is one of the extruded food products. The characteristics of starch in the material contribute to the resulting extrusion product, due to the presence of amylose and amylopectin in it. Generally, the raw material for making macaroni is flour. The increasing demand for flour could not always be met; thus, various attempts to replace flour by diversifying local ingredients that are rich in carbohydrates, especially starch content, are conducted. These ingredients include cassava flour, white sweet potato flour, and cocoyam flour. One important attribute of macaroni produced by these alternative flours is the color; therefore, carrot peel extract, green mustard extract, and red dragon fruit peel extract were tried as natural dyes. This study aimed to determine the best formulation of cassava flour, white sweet potato flour, and cocoyam flour with the addition of carrot peel extract, green mustard extract, and red dragon fruit peel extract on the physicochemical characteristics of the produced macaroni. The experimental design used was completely randomized design, where Factor I was the concentration of flour (cassava flour, sweet potato flour, and cocoyam flour) while Factor II was the addition of extracts (carrot peel extract, green mustard extract, and red dragon fruit peel extract). The best treatment in this study was the treatment of white sweet potato flour with the addition of red dragon fruit skin extract which produced macaroni with the following characteristics: 12.305% water content, 1.955% ash content, 5.825% protein, 0.91% fat content, 79.005% carbohydrate content, 79.005% carbohydrate content, 65.20% starch, 25.010% amylose, and 40.193% amylopectin.

Keyword: Macaroni, Non gluten flour, Vegetable peel extract

ABSTRAK

Makaroni merupakan salah satu produk pangan ekstrusi. Karakteristik pati dalam bahan berkontribusi terhadap produk ekstrusi yang dihasilkan, disebabkan adanya kandungan amilosa dan amilopektin didalamnya. Umumnya bahan baku pembuatan makaroni adalah tepung terigu. Sehingga menyebabkan penggunaan tepung terigu meningkat, sedangkan ketersediaan tidak sebanding sehingga diperlukan upaya diversifikasi pangan lokal pengganti tepung terigu yang kaya sumber karbohidrat terutama kandungan pati antara lain tepung singkong, ubi jalar putih, dan kimpul sebagai alternatif pengganti tepung terigu. Daya ukur penting terhadap penerimaan agar makaroni yang dihasilkan dapat menarik konsumen yaitu faktor warna (kenampakan), sehingga dapat memanfaatkan ekstrak kulit wortel, ekstrak sawi hijau, dan ekstrak kulit buah naga merah sebagai pengganti air, pewarna alami. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui formulasi terbaik terhadap pengaruh tepung kimpul, singkong dan ubi jalar putih dengan penambahan ekstrak kulit buah naga merah, sawi hijau dan kulit wortel terhadap karakteristik fisikokimia makaroni yang dihasilkan. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah RAL, dimana Faktor I adalah penggunaan tepung (Tepung singkong, tepung ubi jalar, tepung kimpul), dan faktor II adalah penambahan ekstrak (kulit wortel, sawi hijau, kulit buah naga). Perlakuan terbaik penelitian ini yaitu perlakuan tepung ubi jalar putih dengan penambahan ekstrak kulit buah naga merah yang menghasilkan makaroni dengan karakteristik :  kadar air 12,305%, kadar abu 1,955%, protein 5,825%, kadar lemak 0,91%, kadar karbohidrat 79,005%, kadar pati 65,20%, amilosa 25,010%, amilopektin 40,193%.

Kata kunci : Ekstrak sayur, makaroni, tepung umbi


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