PENGARUH PERENDAMAN DALAM BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI LARUTAN KAPUR DANGARAM TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR ASAM SIANIDA (HCN) UMBI GADUNG (Dioscorea hispida Dennst)

Solfian Rusli, tamrin tamrin, hermanto hermanto

Abstract


ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the solvent concentration on the cyanide acid (HCN) levels
of yam tubers (Dioscorea hispida Dennst) after immersion using salt and lime solution. This study used a randomized block
design with a combination of salt solution and lime concentration of 15% at the same time that was 48 hours. The
observation variables in this study were cyanide (HCN) test and chemical analysis (ash, water, and starch contents). Data
were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data that were significant then further analyzed by
Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a 95% confidence level (α = 0.05). The results show that the concentration and
type of solvent had a very significant effect (p <0.05) on levels of cyanide acid (HCN) of yam flour. The lowest HCN level
(3.22 ppm) was obtained in the treatment of salt and lime solution immersion with a concentration of 15% (G
2
K
2
). The
chemical content of the best treatment of yam tuber flour (G
2
K
2
) was 3.35% water, 1.50% ash, and 38.78% starch. It can be
concluded that the yam tuber flour had an HCN level that is lower than the standards set by SNI 01-7152-2006, which is a
maximum of 50 ppm.

Keywords: yam’s tuber, cyanide, salt, lime

ABSTRAK
Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi jenis pelarut terhadap kadar asam sianida (HCN)
umbi gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst) setelah perendaman dengan menggunakan larutan garam dan larutan kapur.
Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan kombinasi perendaman larutan garam dan kapur konsentrasi
15% dengan waktu sama yaitu 48 jam. Variabel pengamatan pada penelitian ini yaitu uji kadar sianida (HCN) dan analisis
kimia (kadar abu, air dan pati). Data dianalisis secara statistik menggunakan analysis of varians (ANOVA). Hasil analisis
data berpengaruh nyata dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) pada taraf kepercayaan 95% (α =
0,05). Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa konsentrasi dan jenis pelarut berpengaruh sangat nyata (p<0,05) terhadap kadar
asam sianida (HCN) tepung umbi gadung. Kadar HCN terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan perendaman larutan garam dan
kapur dengan konsentrasi 15%(G2K2) yaitu sebesar 3,22 ppm. Kandungan kimia tepung umbi gadung perlakuan terbaik
(G2K2) meliputi kadar air 3,35%, kadar abu 1,50%, Kadar pati 38,78%. Berdasarkan hasil analisis tersebut bahwa tepung
umbi gadung dengan kadar HCN ini lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan standar yang ditetapkan oleh SNI 01-7152-2006
yaitu maksimal 50 ppm.

Kata kunci : Umbi Gadung, Sianida, Garam, Kapur.


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